AIMS tuorial

Introduction

Note

Disclaimer

All contributors of BrainVISA project are very happy to propose tools, libraries, demonstration data and documentation available free of charge on http://brainvisa.info. The BrainVISA project is focused on neuroimaging and the development of tools only in a context of research. Although every care has been taken by all contributors of the BrainVISA project no warranty can be given in respect of the accuracy, reliability, up-to-dateness or completeness of the information contained within BrainVISA project. In the same way no one will be responsible or liable for any loss or damage of any sort.

Any contributor reserves the right to alter or remove the content, in full or in part, without prior notice.

In order to work through the following sections, please download the demonstration data from one of the following links:

For more information concerning the installation, please refer to the handbook of BrainVISA.

In order to read the help of one commande line, either type

command_name -h

or refer to the list of commandlines on http://brainvisa.info.

Basic commandlines

AimsFileConvert: Performs file format and data conversion

HELP: command help

DATA: data_for_anatomist/subject01/subject01.nii.

EXAMPLE: here is the conversion from NIFTI-1 to MINC format.

prompt% AimsFileConvert -i subject01.nii -o subject01.mnc

NOTE: if you work with DICOM files, all slices of the same acquisition must be located in the same directory.

AimsSubVolume: Carve a subvolume in the input volume

HELP: command help

It can also be used to split a 4D volume into a series of 3D volumes.

DATA: data_unprocessed/sujet01/diffusion/sujet01_raw_diffusion_o041.ima, diffusion volume of size [128, 128, 60, 46].

EXAMPLE 1: GET T2 VOLUME FROM DIFFUSION DATA.

In order to get the first volume of the 4th dimension, which corresponds to a T2 volume, you can use the AimsSubVolume command in this way:

prompt% AimsSubVolume -i sujet01_raw_diffusion_o041.ima -o t2.ima -t 0 -T 0
Input volume dimensions : 128 128 60 46
Output volume dimensions : 128 128 60 1
prompt%

Note

Concerning a volume of size [x, y, z, 3] has 3 time steps, indices start at 0, so the time index must have a value between 0 and 2. This information can be read in the header file or into an anatomist browser.

EXAMPLE 2: GET THE FIRST 3 DIFFUSION VOLUMES FROM THE DIFFUSION DATA.

In order to get the first 3 volumes of diffusion data only:

prompt% AimsSubVolume -i sujet01_raw_diffusion_o041.ima -o vol1.ima vol2.ima vol3.ima -t 1 2 3 -T 1 2 3
Input volume dimensions : 128 128 60 46
Output volume dimensions : 128 128 60 1
Input volume dimensions : 128 128 60 46
Output volume dimensions : 128 128 60 1
Input volume dimensions : 128 128 60 46
Output volume dimensions : 128 128 60 1
prompt%

EXAMPLE 3: GET ALL DIFFUSION VOLUMES FROM DIFFUSION DATA.

In order to remove the T2 data from diffusion data and to keep only the diffusion data:

prompt% AimsSubVolume -i sujet01_raw_diffusion_o041.ima -o diff.ima -t 1 -T 45
Input volume dimensions : 128 128 60 46
Output volume dimensions : 128 128 60 45
prompt%

EXAMPLE 4: SPLIT A 4D VOLUME INTO A SERIES OF 3D VOLUMES.

AimsSubVolume -i subject01_raw_diffusion_o041.ima -o diff.nii -s
Input volume dimensions : 128 128 60 46
Output volume dimensions : 128 128 60 1
[...]
Input volume dimensions : 128 128 60 46
Output volume dimensions : 128 128 60 1

AimsThreshold: Threshold on data

HELP: command help

DATA: data_for_aims/AimsThreshold/voronoi_subject01.ima.

EXAMPLE: select a label.

For instance, your image is a label volume with 4 values:

  • label 0 = background,
  • label 1 = one hemisphere,
  • label 2 = second hemisphere and
  • label 3 = cerebellum.

If you want to remove the cerebellum, you can set up a threshold to keep all values lower than 3:

prompt% AimsThreshold -i voronoi_lesson1.ima -o hemi_only.ima -m lt -t 3
_images/aimsthreshold.png

Select label

AimsGraphMesh: Performs graph storage conversion and sub-buckets meshing

This command is an improved version of AimsGraphConvert

HELP: command help

DATA: data_for_anatomist/roi/basal_ganglia.arg and data_for_anatomist/roi/basal_ganglia.data.

EXAMPLE: mesh a ROI graph. The viewing will be enhanced if the ROI graph is meshed.

prompt%  AimsGraphMesh -i basal_ganglia.arg -o mesh_basal_ganglia.arg
Warning: wrong filename_base in graph, trying to fix it
filename_base : mesh_basal_ganglia.data
bound : (121 ,127 ,66)
reading slice      :  67
getting interface  : done
processing mesh    : done
clearing interface : done
bound : (151 ,153 ,66)
reading slice      :  67
getting interface  : done
processing mesh    : done
clearing interface : done
bound : (153 ,137 ,71)
reading slice      :  72
getting interface  : done
processing mesh    : done
clearing interface : done
....
saving all
_images/aimsgraphmesh.png

Viewing of non-meshed and meshed ROI

AimsRoiFeatures: Compute scalar features (mean, volume ...) from regions of interest

HELP: command help

DATA: data_for_anatomist/roi/anat_demo_roi.ima and data_for_aims/AimsRoiFeatures/masque_thalamus_gauche.ima

Here is an example using a binary mask (so all voxels are set to 1, in other words there is a label called 1) and a volume:

prompt% AimsRoiFeatures -i masque_thalamus_gauche.ima --imageStatistics 1:anat_demo_roi.ima -o roi_features.txt
prompt% more features.txt
attributes = {
  'format': 'features_1.0',
  'content_type': 'roi_features',
  '1': {
    'point_count': 6502,
    'volume': 6857.58,
    '1': {
    'mean': 48.797,
    'stddev': 8.32696,
    'min': 21.0003,
    'max': 69.9999,
    'median': 50,
    },
  },
}

Conversion

AimsGraphConvert: conversion from label image to ROI graph

HELP: command help

DATA: no data.

EXAMPLE 1:

prompt% AimsGraphConvert -i label_image.ima -o label_graphe.arg --bucket

EXAMPLE 2: Mesh the graph.

prompt% AimsGraphMesh -i label_graphe.arg -o m_label_graphe.arg

Table of format conversions

Here are some very useful command lines to convert data. However, all command options are not explained in details. Please refer to the command help.

input (format / type) Output (format / type) Commandline Note
GIS MINC AimsFileConvert my_volume.ima my_volume.mnc Many other formats allowed
Label image (volume) .arg (graph) AimsGraphConvert -i label_image.ima -o label_graphe.arg --bucket  
.arg (graph) Label volume AimsGraphConvert -i roi.arg -o roi.arg --volume the volume will be found in the roi.data directory
Volume Cluster graph AimsClusterArg -i volume.ima -o cluster.arg  
Label volume Mesh AimsMesh -i label_image.ima -o label_image.gii  
Binary volume Mesh AimsMesh -i binary_mask.ima -o mask.gii the output will be mask_1_0.gii

Images calculations and combinations

cartoLinearComb.py: sum 2 activation maps

HELP: command help

DATA: no data.

EXAMPLE: Sum of 2 activation maps.

For instance, if you have 2 activation maps which have been obtained by functional analysis, and if you want to do a fusion of both, then you can create a new volume which will be the sum of map_I and map_II.

prompt% cartoLinearComb.py -i map_I.nii -i map_II.nii -o map_I+II.nii.gz -f 'I1+I2'
output type: FLOAT
_images/aimslinearcomb.png

Sum of 2 activation maps

Note

image dimensions and voxels size must be the same: no resampling is performed.

Note

You can use this commandline to add several volumes, or to perform another formula using the -f option; As many images may be used as the formula needs, multiple -i options are allowed.

Note

amongst allowed operations in formulas, are the standard linear operators +, -, *, /. They are applied voxel-wise. Groups are allowed using parentheses.

In fact the formula is directly interpreted in Python language, provided operations are defined on volumes in PyAIMS.

For instance, volume / scalar operations are allowed: I1*3, I1+12 etc.

Handling meshes

Creation of a cube mesh from a point list

HELP: command help

DATA: no data.

EXAMPLE:

  • Write the following text file and save it under the name cube.txt:
8
0 0 0
10 0 0
0 10 0
10 10 0
0 0 10
10 0 10
0 10 10
10 10 10
  • run the command:
prompt% AimsConvexHull -i cube.txt -o cube.mesh

AimsZCat: concatenates volumes (along Z axis), meshes or buckets

HELP: command help

DATA:

  • data_for_anatomist/subject01/subject01_Lhemi.mesh
  • data_for_anatomist/subject01/subject01_Rhemi.mesh

EXAMPLE: concatenating both right and left hemisphere meshes

prompt% AimsZCat -i subject01_Lhemi.mesh subject01_Rhemi.mesh -o right_and_left_hemisphere.mesh

Handling referentials and transformations

Coordinates systems in AIMS

Here is a description of the coordinates sytems used in Aims and Anatomist, and what I have understood of how SPM handles its referentials.

AIMS and Anatomist

Internally

Anatomist uses AIMS to handle its referentials so behaves exactly the same way.

Aims tries to work internally in an image-specific referential, but with always the same orientation. This orientation is axial with the following coordinates system:

  • X axis: right to left
  • Y axis: front to back
  • Z axis: top to bottom
  • origin: the center of the first voxel: the voxel in the top, right, front corner

If you look at it you will realize that this referential is in radiological convention and is indirect. This is, in my opinion, a bad choice, but it’s a bit too late to change.

Once loaded in memory, all voxels should be organized in this order. As a consequence, images in Anatomist are always displayed in radiological mode, whatever the actual orientation of data on disk.

Externally

Images on disk, depending on their format and acquisition modes, are not necessarily in this orientation. When a different orientation is detected, images are flipped in memory at load-time to fit the standard AIMS orientation. And when images are written back to disk, they may also be flipped back according to the specific format needs.

Transformations

By default, AIMS doesn’t apply any transformation other than flipping images at load time as described just before.

But transformations can be provided in some Aims commands or loaded in Anatomist to apply coordinates changes. Then coords transformations are applied on the fly when processing or displaying data which are not in the same referential.

There is no special referential (such as a common central working referential).

Transformation files used by AIMS (.trm files) are ASCII files looking like this:

Tx Ty Tz
R11 R12 R13
R21 R22 R23
R31 R32 R33

Tx, Ty, Tz are the translation components while the Rij coefficients are the linear matrix part. When used, these coefficients are applied as a “standard” 4x4 transformation matrix:

    [ R11  R12  R13  Tx ]
M = [ R21  R22  R23  Ty ]
    [ R31  R32  R33  Tz ]
    [   0    0    0   1 ]
MINF files

AIMS (and Anatomist) writes an additional header file which can store any additional information: the .minf header (for Meta-INFormation) when saving its data (images, meshes, and any other data), and reads it if it is present when loading data files. This meta-header has the shape displayed by the AimsFileInfo command, and may be saved in “python dictionary” or XML formats. The MINF file has the same file name as the main data file, with the .minf extension added (toto.img.minf for instance).

The MINF header may contain referentials and transformations information. When present, this information is stored in a few fields:

  • referential may store an unique identifier (a cryptic characters string) to identify the AIMS referential for the current data file. If several data files refer to the same identifier, then they share the same referential and are considered to have coordinates in the same system.
  • referentials may store a list of target referentials for transformations specified in the transformations field. Both fields must have the same number of entries. Referentials are identified by character strings, either as unique identifiers or generic names (not necessarily unique). Some standard common referentials have specific names: “Talairach-MNI template-SPM” for the MNI normalization referential (used by SPM for instance), or “Talairach-AC/PC-Anatomist” for the referential based on anterior and posterior commissures used by the BrainVISA anatomical segmentation pipeline.
  • transformations may store a list of transformation matrices, each going from the AIMS data referential to the corresponding referential specified in the referentials field (same position in the list). Each transformation is a 4x4 matrix written as 16 numbers in rows, and assumes all coordinates are in millimeters.
  • storage_to_memory may store the disk orientation information, by providing the transformation between the disk storage voxels order and the memory orientation (the AIMS referential). This transformation is in the same shape as the transformations field, except that it is not a list, and the transformation is in voxels, not in mm.

For instance a MINF file may look like the following (in “python dictionary” format, here):

attributes = {
  'storage_to_memory' : [ 1, 0, 0, 0, 0, -1, 0, 62, 0, 0, -1, 45, 0, 0, 0, 1 ],
  'referentials' : [ 'Coordinates aligned to another file or to anatomical truth' ],
  'transformations' : [ [ -1, 0, 0, 78, 0, -1, 0, 75, 0, 0, -1, 84, 0, 0, 0, 1 ] ],
  'referential': 'be9724cc-eceb-d831-a83e-335e12b80f14',
}

The referentials and transformations information in the MINF header may reflect information already stored in the specific format header (Analyze origin, or NIFTI-1 qform and sform, or MINC transformation).

SPM

Internally

Internally, SPM thinks things are always in the same orientation, which is also axial but with different axes:

  • X axis: left to right
  • Y axis: back to front
  • Z axis: bottom to top
  • origin: the center of the voxel specified by the origin field of the SPM image header. This origin is specified in voxels and starts counting from 1 (not 0) like a matlab array index does.

This is a neurological convention orientation. The axes happen to be exactly the contrary of what is done in AIMS. Bad luck... But this referential is direct so is probably better than in AIMS...

Working on the coordinate transformations for years and regularly getting headaches from it, I am still not 100% sure of what I say here, so if I’m wrong, please correct me by sending a message on BrainVisa forum (http://brainvisa.info/forum/). Especially, I’m not sure that SPM99 and SPM2 really use the same referentials.

Externally

SPM handles input Analyze images in two different orientations: axial radiological and axial neurological orientations. This orientation is not specified in SPM-Analyze format image files, so you have to tell how they are oriented. This is done in SPM by a flipping flag set somewhere in SPM defaults configuration (default.analyze.flip in SPM2).

This is specific to SPM-Analyze format, and does not apply to NIFTI-1 or Minc formats. Hopefully the Analyze format is now obsolete and will disapear with time, but there are still existing files...

This flipping flag has changed in form and meaning between SPM99 and SPM2.

As I have understood:

  • SPM99:
    • SPM99 uses the flipping flag only when normalizing images, indicating that the normalization process must perform or not a flip towards the normalization template. A clear indication of it is that the flag is part of the normalization parameters and is not present in other parts of SPM.
    • Otherwise, SPM99 does not bother about the orientation of images. This is to say: even when displaying images, radiological images will be displayed with the left on the right of the display window, and neurological images with the left on the left, regardless of the flipping flag.
    • Normalized images are always in neurological orientation whatever the orientation of input unnormalized images. Consequently, after normalizing a radiological image, loading both a normalized image and an unnormalized one in SPM will display them with different orientations.
    • I am not sure if normalization templates have to be necessarily in neurological orientation or not but I guess yes because there is no way to indicate that the template is in radiological orientation.
    • Normalization matrices for radiological data contain a X axis flip (negative 1st coefficient)
  • SPM2:
    • SPM2 uses the flipping flag at load time: radiological images are systematically flipped when loaded (and flipped back when rewritten so as to keep their radiological orientation on disk). This is true for all Analyze/SPM image files.
    • This means all processings use it. As a consequence, all images are displayed in neurological orientation, left on the left, even for radiological images.
    • But as this flag is global in SPM, all SPM images are considered to be in the same orientation: you cannot mix radio and neuro images. What I am pointing out here is only valid for SPM format images: SPM2 also handles MINC format, and Minc images contain orientation information.
    • Normalized images are now in the same orientation as the input unnormalized image. Normalizing a radiological image will result in a normalized file in the radiological orientation (in SPM format). This is not what SPM99 used to do.
    • SPM2 does not understand SPM99 and vice versa: no compatibility at all (neither forward nor backward): if you are using the radiological convention (like we are), loading in SPM2 an image normalized by SPM99 will result in a spurious flip and incorrect display and processing. This means you cannot use with SPM2 an image database built with SPM99.
    • Normalization templates can be in either orientation. More precisely, I guess the template must be in the orientation specified by the flipping flag, or in Minc format in neurological orientation. I’m not completely sure of this. But this is perhaps an explanation of why the standard normalization template is now in Minc format and not in SPM format (otherwise its interpretation would depend on a user-defined flag).
    • Last minute: I have just discovered that SPM now sometimes produces images with negative voxel sizes. I guess it is a kind of flipping indication, but I don’t know from what to what else. And we know that all radiological images don’t have this negative voxel size feature. So my opinion is that it’s not reliable at all (at least unless you exactly know which version of SPM has written each image and this info is not available). This sign information is ignored in the current version of AIMS. The headache goes on...
  • SPM5, SMP8, SPM12 and later:
    • SPM5 now uses the NIFTI-1 format for all output. NIFTI-1 specifies orientations and possibly transformations to standard referentials in its format, so this is a very good thing. Many problems are now solved.
    • Otherwise I guess SPM5 behaves essentially like SPM2.
    • The only little imperfection is that when SPM5 performs normalizations towards the MNI template, it does not indicate in output image that the target referential is the MNI template, but an unspecified other referential instead. So you have to know the target referential and specify it when needed (for instance in Anatomist).
    • As far as I know, later versions of SPM behave like SPM5.
Transformations

SPM uses a common central referential to work in. Every image can provide a transformation matrix to this referential. Such a transformation may be specified in different ways:

  • an optional .mat file with the same name as the SPM format image. this was the way SPM99 and SPM2 behaved with Analyze format. But with SPM5 and SPM8, using NIFTI-1 formats avoids this need.
  • If this .mat is not provided, then the file format header information is considered. NIFTI-1 provides full affine transformation matrices, but Analyze has only the origin translation, which is considered to be the only transformation needed to reach the central referential. If the .mat file is specified, information contained in it overrides some of the header information (including the origin).

Normalization files (*_sn3d.mat for SPM99, *_sn.mat for SPM2 and newer) contain transformations to the referential of a normalization template (either a standard one provided with the SPM software distribution, or a custom user-made one). This transformation contains an affine part (matrix), and optionally, depending on the normalization type, a non-linear part (coefficients on a functions base as far as I know but I don’t know much about this part). Information about the input and template images are also included (dimensions, and origins or voxels-to-template transformation).

Normalized images are in the referential of the normalization template used, but not necessarily with the same bounding box, resolution and field of view.

SPM99 and SPM2 use normalization files with different names and different contents. They are not compatible, even if there is some common and similar information in them. The contents structure changed a little bit in later versions (as of SPM12) but with the same information as in SPM2.

Changing between SPM and AIMS

Due to the different internal orientations of the coordinate systems, going from SPM to AIMS and vice versa causes some serious problems.

Normalization

SPM normalization files are in matlab (.mat) format. AIMS cannot read the proprietary matlab format, so such files cannot be directly imported in AIMS.

However, the scipy module for Python language can read them. So we have made Python scripts in PyAims and in BrainVisa to convert SPM matrices to AIMS .trm format. Only the affine part can be converted, because AIMS only use matrices for transformations, and non-linear information cannot fit into a matrix. Look at the AimsSpmNormalizationConvert.py program, and the SPMsn3dToAims process in BrainVISA.

As the orientation is different in SPM and AIMS, a transformation to a template image is not the same as a transformation to a normalized image with a different field of view. So, when converting SPM normalization matrices, the normalized image must be also provided, otherwise BrainVisa can only give the transformation to the normalization template. Note the difference.

Issues

Unnormalized SPM/Analyze images

It is impossible to guess the orientation of such images if you don’t know how they were acquired. This means you have to manually specify their orientation, either for all images in SPM, or in BrainVisa when importing them into a database. BrainVisa tags them so it knows everything afterwards and avoids mistakes. SPM does not.

Normalized SPM/Analyze images

Normalizing the same image in radiological orientation with SPM99 and SPM2 results in normalized images in different orientations. When you import normalized images coming from another site, you have to know whether they have been normalized by SPM99 or by SPM2, and if the original image was in radiological or neurological orientation.

I think the normalization file (*_sn3d.mat for SPM99, or *_sn.mat for SPM2) contains enough information to retreive the orientation of input and template images, so can disambiguate the situation.

Reading SPM/Analyze origin

The origin field of SPM format is the position of the referential origin, in voxels and starting from 1 (not from 0). In fact it’s a matlab array index. So it is given in the orientation of the image on disk. AIMS flips SPM images on several axes when loading them, so the origin information also has to be flipped. Flipping it needs to know the image dimensions.

AIMS referentials have their origin in the first voxel, (almost) in the corner of the image, and normally don’t use the SPM origin. But the origin information is read and maintained. Anatomist can, if asked for, make a transformation going from AIMS origin (corner) to the SPM origin. This allows to display several aligned SPM images in Anatomist with the correct correspondance. However after this translation, the coordinates are still in AIMS orientation (radiological and indirect), not in SPM, so the coordinates do not correspond to what they are in SPM.

To compare coordinates of SPM images in Anatomist and SPM, another transformation has to be applied in Anatomist, with all the flips included. Anatomist can directly use the SPM/MNI normalization referential.

Other formats (GIS etc)

Up to now, GIS images are considered being always in AIMS orientation unless specified in their AIMS meta-header (.minf file, see the corresponding paragraph). No flips are applied.

The Minc and NIFTI-1 IO plugins take orientation into account and flip data accordingly when reading / writing files.

The DICOM reader in AIMS does not handle orientation in AIMS versions up to 4.4. It will handle it in AIMS 4.5 and later.

I am not sure if other formats (Ecat...) can specify an image orientation or not. If they do, the current release of AIMS will probably not take it into account.

Technical details

SPM normalization matrices conversion to AIMS world

SPM99 and SPM2 don’t use the same format of normalization files, but both provide more or less the following information:

  • An affine transformation matrix, called Affine, transforming coordinates from the template space to the input space, both sides in voxels arrays index, and indexed from 1 (not from 0)
  • A voxels-to-mm transformation matrix for the input image, transforming voxels of the image into a mm position in the SPM internal orientation, taking the origin into account, and possibly rotations if the format supports it (NIFTI). This matrix is called VF.mat in SPM2 and also performs flipping, and called MF in SPM99 but doesn’t seem to contain the flipping information. However for nomrmalization this millimetric referential is quite undefined and we will not really use it.
  • Another voxel-to-mm matrix for the template image: VG.mat in SPM2, or MG in SPM99.
  • Input and template image dimensions in voxels and a bit more: VF.dim and VG.dim in SPM2, or Dims in SPM99.
Notations:
  • 3 images: input (I call it Anatomy to be clearer), template, and normalized images. I use the suffixes A, T and N for coordinates on these 3 images.
  • I use the same name for a given referential and coordinates in this referential: for instance RAA is both the AIMS referential of the anatomical image and a coordinates vector in it. I don’t bother about standardized math notations: I don’t remember them and haven’t been using math anymore for many years. Don’t ask me too much.
  • AIMS referentials:
    • RAA: anatomy (in mm, radio convention, origin in 1st voxel)
    • RAAv: anatomy (in voxels, radio convention, origin in 1st voxel)
    • RAAd: anatomy (in voxels, disk storage ordering)
    • RAN: normalized (in mm...)
  • SPM referentials:
    • RSA: anatomy, in voxels
    • RST: template, in voxels
    • RSCT: template, “central” in mm
    • RSCN: normalized, “central” in mm. Actually, RSCT and RSCN are the same.
  • Transformation matrices:
    • Affine: the SPM affine matrix (voxels): RST to RSA
    • At: SPM voxels to AIMS voxels transformation. This is only to take the array indexing starting at 1 in Matlab. So At is a ( -1, -1, -1 ) voxel translation. It can be used between RSA and RAAd, and either between RSN and RANd.
    • AIMS: RAA to RAN, what we want to calculate. Here again, I’m maybe not using correctly math notations. I mean: RAN = AIMS * RAA.
    • VsA: Aims voxels to mm anat
    • S2MA Aims “storage_to_memory” anat matrix: disk voxels to Aims voxels.
    • A2T: Aims anat-mm to template space-mm: RAA to RSCT, what we want to calculate if no normalized image is used.
    • TN: normalized, Aims-mm to SPM-central-mm: RAN to RSCN
    • TCN: template to normalized in SPM-mm: RSCT to RSCN. This transformation is identity in fact because the template and normalized images are in the same referential internally in SPM, but it’s maybe clearer if I mention it.
_images/normalization.png

Referentials and normalization transformations

Resolution:

We want first A2T, then AIMS, provided Affine, S2MA and MT

A2T = MT * ( VsA * S2MA * At * Affine )^-1
AIMS = TN^-1 * A2T

AimsInvertTransformation: Compute the inverse transformation

HELP: command help

DATA: no data.

prompt% AimsInvertTransformation -i R1_TO_R2.trm -o R2_TO_R1.trm

AimsComposeTransformation: Compose two transformations

HELP: command help

DATA: no data.

Imagine you have 3 referentials: R1, R2 and R3. You know R1 -> R2 (R1_TO_R2.trm) and R2 -> R3 (R2_TO_R3.trm). To compute *R1 -> R3``:

prompt% AimsComposeTransformation -i R2_TO_R3.trm R1_TO_R2.trm -o R1_TO_R3.trm

Note

Be aware that the order of transformation matrices is very important, this one is right:

AimsComposeTransformation -i R2_TO_R3.trm R1_TO_R2.trm -o R1_TO_R3.trm

but the following is wrong:

AimsComposeTransformation -i R1_TO_R2.trm R1_TO_R3.trm -o R1_TO_R3.trm

Note

If you have R3_TO_R2.trm and not R2_TO_R3.trm, you must first inverse this transformation matrix by using AimsInvertTransformation.

Handling graphs

Copy a set of graph attributes to another graph

HELP: command help for AimsGraphConvert

DATA: no data.

This case generally happens when working on automatically labelled sulci graphs. The nodes labels are given as the label attribute (automatic recognition labels), and you sometimes need to copy them to the name attribute (manual labelling). You have 2 possibilities to do it: manually or automatically.

MANUALLY: you can verify each value of label attribute and correct it if necessary. To do so, change the value of the name attribute in a browser window (using a right-click on a graph node), and save the graph as a new graph (right-click on the graph in Anatomist control window and select File => Save).

AUTOMATICALLY: you can use the AimsGraphConvert commandline. The following example shows how to use it:

prompt% AimsGraphConvert -i subjectAuto.arg -o subjectAutoName.arg -c label -d name

This command has many other options, but for the current application, the useful ones are:

  • -i option: input graph, for instance an autolabelled.
  • -o option: output file name.
  • -c option: attribute to be copied.
  • -d option: destination attribute.

Rigid registration

AimsManualRegistration: manual registration between 2 volumes from 3 specific landmarks

HELP: command help

DATA: no data.

EXAMPLE: MANUAL REGISTRATION BETWEEN 2 VOLUMES FROM 3 SPECIFIC LANDMARKS.

This example is based on 2 volumes (i.e. registration from image_1 to image2) using specific points (i.e. anatomical landmarks). By using the AimsManualRegistration command line, you will obtain a transformation matrix from image_1 to image_2 as a .trm file.

  • For each volume, draw a ROI with exactly 3 regions (each region must contain only 1 voxel) with the same name per region (ie voxel_1, voxel_2, and voxel_3). So, you have the following ROIs: ROI_image_1.arg and ROI_image_2.arg with the structure of each ROI is composed by the regions: voxel_1, voxel_2 and voxel_3.

  • The command line is as follows:

    prompt% AimsManualRegistration -f ROI_image_1.arg -t ROI_image_2.arg -o ROI_image_1_TO_ROI_image_2.trm
    

Note

To load a transformation, please refer to The Anatomist tutorial.

AimsMIRegister: registration based on mutual information

HELP: command help

DATA:

  • registration/anat.img
  • registration/fonc.ima

This command can appear complex because a lot of options are available. In this section, we are going to try to define a reasonable use. The easier use is the following:

prompt% AimsMIRegister -r anat.img -t fonc.ima --dir fonc_TO_anat.trm --inv anat_TO_fonc.trm

Here are some options to optimize the registration. It is not advisable to use the other because the implementation is not totally finished.

Initialization of registration: --gcinit, --threshref and --threshtest

There are 2 modes for initialization of registration. The --gcinit 1 mode (default mode) allows an initialization with the center of gravity. It works with --threshref (0.05 by default) and --threshtest (0.1 by default) options. These thresholds preserve a percentage of intensity according to the maximun intensity. Historically, this command was created to register PET and T1 MRI modalities, so to decrease the signal of PET data, a threshold was performed.

The --gcinit 0 mode allows an initialization with coordinates by using --Tx, --Ty, --Tz, --dTx, --dTy, --dTz, --Rx, --Ry, --Rz, --dRx, --dRy, --dRz. Parameters beginning with a d correspond to the exploration step, which is voxel/2 by default.

Speeding up the process:

The reference image may be downsampled with a reduction factor according to the principle of a pyramid with --refstartpyr:

  • --refstartpyr 1: 1 voxel out of 2 in the 3 directions = reduction of factor 8
  • --refstartpyr 2: 1 voxel out of 4 in the 3 directions = reduction of factor 64
  • --refstartpyr 3: 1 voxel out of 8 in the 3 directions = reduction of factor 562

Advanced level

Get a symmetrical ROI

HELP:

DATA: no data.

The purpose of this section is for instance to compare the ROI measurement for both hemispheres following the realignment of the brain by using a symmetric axis:

  • Draw a ROI on the T1 MRI and export it as a mask to work with a NIFTI (.nii) file (image) and not a .arg (graph): roi.nii

  • Use the AimsMidPlaneAlign command line to realign the image and compute the transformation (superposition of the interhemispheric plane with the plane x=dimX/2).

    prompt% AimsMidPlaneAlign -i mriT1.nii -o align_mriT1.nii
    

    Note

    The transformation matrix is located in the input file directory with the following name mriT1.nii_TO_align_mriT1.nii.trm.

  • Do a linear combination if the ROI is a binary image:

    prompt% cartoLinearComb.py -i roi.nii -o linearComb_roi.nii -f 'I1*16000'
    

    Note

    Please refer to the table below if the image is not binary.

  • Resample the ROI with the previously calculated transformation:

    prompt% AimsResample -i linearComb_roi.nii -o resample_roi.nii -m mriT1.nii_TO_align.nii.trm
    
  • Perform a threshold to 8000 to preserve a correct volume because the resampling widely extend the symmetric roi volume:

    prompt% AimsThreshold -i resample_roi.nii -o threshold_roi.nii -m ge -t 8000
    
  • Get the symmetrical ROI by using AimsFlip as follows:

    prompt% AimsFlip -i threshold_roi.nii -o sym_roi.nii -m XX
    
  • Each ROI can be in both referentials which are T1 and T1_align. In order to change the coordinate system, you apply a .trm. For instance, if you want the ROIs in T1 referential, you must resample the sym_roi.nii with the inverse of T1MRI.nii_TO_align.nii.

    prompt% AimsInvertTransformation -i rmiT1.nii_TO_align.nii.trm -o align.nii_TO_rmiT1.nii.trm
    

    Then, resample the sym_roi.nii:

    prompt% AimsResample -i sym_roi.nii -o sym_roi_RT1.nii -m align.nii_TO_rmiT1.nii.trm
    
  • Analyze/compare the ROIs by using AimsRoiFeatures.

Note

Be aware that the procedure presented below is not formal. In fact, many variations can be processed, the modality (PET, CT ...), how the ROI is obtained (draw on the original referential, or after the realignment) or where it comes from (i.e. created by an other process), what is the type of ROI value (binary, label image ...).

Here is a summary to help you compute and/or do a threshold of your ROI to preserve a correct volume (the resampling leads to volume changes):

Summary to preserve the ROI volume:

Max value command lines
Binary image (max=1)
AimsLinearComb -i roi.ima -o roi.ima -a 16000
AimsResample -i roi.ima -o roi.ima -m motion.trm
AimsThreshold -i roi.ima -o roi.ima -m ge -t 8000
Max=max_value
AimsLinearComb -i roi.ima -o roi.ima -a 16000 -b max_value
AimsResample -i roi.ima -o roi.ima -m motion.trm
AimsThreshold -i roi.ima -o roi.ima -m ge -t 8000

Note

For more information on the algorithm used by AimsMidPlaneAlign, please refer to Prima S, Ourselin S, and Ayache N. Computation of the mid-sagittal plane in 3-D brain images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2002 Feb;21(2):122-38.

Programming with AIMS in Python language

See the PyAIMS tutorial.